Ένα potpourri κειμένων που δημοσιεύθηκαν στο "The Horizons"

ALWAYS REMEMBER …
Παρακαλώ να μου επιτρέψετε, κάνοντας χρήση της φιλοξενίας σας, να υπενθυμίσω σ’ όλους τους συναδέλφους τα παρακάτω:
◦ Ο κάθε μαθητής έχει την δική του ξεχωριστή προσωπικότητα, τις δικές του ανάγκες και τον δικό του τρόπο μάθησης .Έχει δικαίωμα στην πρόοδο και στην επιτυχία και αξίζει να πετύχει ανάλογα με τις δυνατότητές του. Οφείλουμε να τον γνωρίσουμε, να τον αποδεχτούμε, να τον σεβαστούμε και να του δώσουμε όλες τις δυνατές ευκαιρίες να πετύχει.
◦ Η διδασκαλία μας πρέπει να είναι φιλική προς τον μαθητή, μαθητοκεvτρική και διαφοροποιημένη. Η επιλογή του διδακτικού υλικού, των στρατηγικών, τεχνικών και δραστηριοτήτων για κάθε τάξη και κάθε μάθημα να γίνεται σύμφωνα με τις γνώσεις και τα ενδιαφέροντα των μαθητών και όχι με βάση τις προσωπικές μας προτιμήσεις και την διευκόλυνσή μας.
◦ Ο ρόλος μας είναι αυτός του συντονιστή και εμψυχωτή σε μια ομαδοσυνεργατική και βιωματική μάθηση με επικοινωνιακή προσέγγιση.
◦ Εφαρμόζουμε πάντα το Διαθεματικό Ενιαίο Πλαίσιο Προγράμματος Σπουδών και ακολουθούμε το Αναλυτικό Πρόγραμμα και τις οδηγίες του ΥΠΕΠΘ και του Παιδαγωγικού Ινστιτούτου, λαμβάνοντας υπόψη τις κατά περίπτωση ιδιαιτερότητες και ενημερώνοντας αρμοδίως.
◦ Η επικοινωνία, η συνεργασία και η ενεργός συμμετοχή δεν μπορεί να είναι μόνο στόχος της διδασκαλίας μας και απαίτησή μας προς τους μαθητές. Οι ίδιοι πρέπει να θέσουμε τους εαυτούς μας παράδειγμα ενεργούς συμμετοχής στα του σχολείου, συνεργασίας και καλής επικοινωνίας με όλους τους παράγοντες (μαθητές, γονείς, συναδέλφους, διευθυντές κλπ).
◦ Η καλή και συνεχής ενημέρωση, η συστηματική προετοιμασία και η άσκηση πάνω στο διδακτικό αντικείμενο και στον εαυτό μας, καθώς και η συνεχής αυτοαξιολόγηση – που πρέπει να μας κατευθύνει στην συνέχιση ή αναθεώρηση του έργου μας – θα μας οδηγήσουν στη επιτυχία.
◦ Οι νέες τεχνολογίες θα μας διευκολύνουν και θα κάνουν πιο ελκυστικό το μάθημά μας, αλλά η επιτυχία εξαρτάται από εμάς. “Success depends less on materials, techniques, etc, and more on what goes on inside and between people in a classroom” (Stevick, E.: 1980).
◦ Να θυμάστε πάντα ότι ο ΔΑΣΚΑΛΟΣ ΚΑΝΕΙ ΤΗ ΔΙΑΦΟΡΑ.
Σκενδέρης Θεόδωρος
Σχολ. Σύμβουλος Αγγλικής
Ημαθίας, Πέλλας, Πιερίας


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Evaluation and assessment:
Can they go hand in hand?
Diana Hicks looks at some differences between assessment and evaluation and suggests some practical classroom strategies.
New approaches and ideas in the curriculum, teacher training, classroom activities and teaching styles bring with them new ways of thinking and behaving and new words to talk about the innovations. 'Evaluation' and 'assessment' are two examples of this new vocabulary. Neither term is new to teachers or students but what is new are the different strategies which can be used to make clearer distinctions between them.
Evaluation and assessment are often thought of as having the same meaning because they can sometimes be carried out by one event. However, each serves different purposes because assessment and evaluation are each concerned with different aspects of teaching and learning. We assess our students to establish 'what' and 'how much' they have learnt but we evaluate our students to find out 'how' the learning process is developing. Both are of importance to the teacher and the learners.
Assessment without evaluation
The most straightforward example of assessment without evaluation is the end of year examinations. These are usually based on the syllabus or the textbook and the grade indicates the 'attainment' or 'achievement' level of each student, which can be measured against the other students in the same class or in other classes. The result is simply that students know whether they have passed or failed and teachers know who are the 'good', 'average' and 'weak' students.
Assessment with evaluation
However, in addition to end of year tests, during the course of a school year students may take other smaller 'quizzes' or tests. Generally, however, the scores from these smaller tests (such as 6/10 or 62%) will give the teacher the rank order for the students in the class but will probably not tell the students where and why they are going wrong nor will it give them strategies to help them improve. Neither will the scores inform the teacher about how and why the students behaved in a certain way. These smaller tests are ideal mechanisms to use to 'observe effects in context' - in other words, to build evaluation into assessment.



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Some practical ideas
• Tests in the school year
Tests given during the school year can be seen as ways to help bring about changes in our teaching. In this way they move away from being merely 'attainment' or 'achievement' tests and instead become 'formative' or 'diagnostic'. In this case evaluation is used to improve certain aspects of the course or to change or add different activities in order to improve the progress of more of the students in the class during the course of the school year.
The short tests given during the year usually refer back to units recently covered in class and usually focus on grammar and vocabulary. Often they are 'gap fill' so the teacher or even students can mark them quickly. These provide quantitative feedback - they tell us how much the students have remembered but they do not tell us how they learnt it or which kind of tasks the students found most useful to help them understand it. However, if the students are involved in evaluating the contents of the test, we can acquire qualitative feedback on the basis of which we can re-assess our teaching and testing behaviours. There are different ways in which students can be involved in this qualitative process of assessment and evaluation.
We can bring the students into the process of 'how' by, for example, ... inviting them to think about what kind of exercise would best test their knowledge of vocabulary.
• Evaluation in vocabulary assessment: involving the students
First, all tests consist of 'what' and 'how': students usually know 'what' they will be tested on but they are probably not told 'how'. We often underestimate the 'how': that is, the exercise type we choose may not be a factor taken into account when we design the test. Nevertheless, it is this 'how' of the test which can help us make our teaching and the students' learning more effective. We can bring the students into the process of 'how' by, for example, telling them that there will be a vocabulary test and inviting them to think about what kind of exercise would test their knowledge of vocabulary best. First, students can look at the kinds of vocabulary exercises they did in previous tests. If the vocabulary exercise in all the tests is always the same type it will be worth spending some time thinking about why this is the case.
• Exercise types
If, however, there is a range of exercise types which test vocabulary, students can be asked to consider how successful they think each exercise type is : how much guesswork is involved in each exercise? what kind of guesswork? Guessing from context in a cloze text, for example, is a different kind of guessing from three or four choices in a multiple choice sentence. What other language knowledge do they use to make guesses in multiple choice sentences? Which kinds of exercise ask them to think about the words? Which ones ask them to use the words creatively? Which exercise types require other skills? (Comprehension questions require reading skills for example.) Which kind of exercise do they prefer and why?
Then, to get a broader picture, students can look through their Students' Books and Workbooks and find as many different kinds of vocabulary exercises as they can, and, at the same time, they can consider which types are appropriate to use in a test. By this time, a list of different vocabulary exercise test types can be written on the board and students can be asked to rank them in order on a piece of paper: putting the ones which they like and are good at at the top and the ones they don't like and are not so good at at the bottom. In pairs they can then discuss reasons for their reactions and write them on their sheet. The sheets are collected in and the results are collated on a poster or overhead transparency.
Already the students have been able to evaluate 'how' they are tested, to think about a variety of options and to think about which type of exercise suits them best. The teacher has collected in some important qualitative information about the process of testing which can be used to inform the construction of the next test and, perhaps also, the teaching which leads up to the next test.
• The next test
The next test can be prepared in the normal way except that, on the test paper, the teacher can put two or possibly three different kinds of exercises to test the same material from which the students have a choice: they must do the exercise which they think they will do best at. The teacher marks the test as usual but at the same time, makes a note of the choices the students made and checks whether students did better or worse than they did on previous tests. When the test is returned to the students they will know not just how much they know but also how correct they were in their choice. In other words, they will have learnt something more about their own learning strength.
This kind of evaluation process allows the teacher to understand more about the individual students learning preferences but also shows that often it may not be the material, in this case, the vocabulary, which is causing a problem for the students, but the manner - the way - in which it is being tested, or, possibly even being taught. This kind of approach to a test allows for the results to become the next stage of the teaching process and the next stage of the students learning process.
Students spend about 10,000 hours of their lifetime trying to learn at school: it is important that some of those hours are spent on evaluating and discussing how that learning happens, or doesn't happen!
• Students follow up: vocabulary learning
Tests are often graded by the teacher, returned to the students, the correct answers are provided in class and the test is then put away and forgotten. If the students have chosen which part of the test to do, the success or failure of that choice can become a subject of discussion: how did they prepare for the vocabulary test? What different approaches did they use and why? Finding out what students do to help themselves learn provides fundamental qualitative data for all teachers. Some students may not prepare well for a test because they are not sure what to do or they know that the strategies they have used before have been unsuccessful and they don't know how to replace them. Unless they learn other strategies they may stop preparing for tests altogether because they know they will fail. Some students may like to keep an evaluation 'diary' or journal in which they can record what kinds of strategies they used to prepare for tests or learn their new vocabulary.
Students spend about 10,000 hours of their lifetime trying to learn at school: it is important that some of those hours are spent on evaluating and discussing how that learning happens, or doesn't happen!
• Teachers' follow up: vocabulary teaching
Once the students have discussed their successes, failures and strategies, the teacher can then decide how to adapt vocabulary teaching in the future. Perhaps too much time is spent on 'pre-teaching' vocabulary? Perhaps students know more words than the teacher thinks? Perhaps they know different ones? Perhaps students do not feel comfortable with dictionaries? Perhaps the problem isn't one of vocabulary but of spelling? Perhaps there is too much emphasis on short term memory rather than long term memory? Perhaps some students would prefer more vocabulary practice in a variety of ways - more reading, more puzzles, more writing.
• Assessment in writing
Many students find writing in English very difficult because there are so many different things to get right - spelling, tenses, vocabulary, agreements, prepositions, syntax particularly word order, register, punctuation and organisation. Correcting written work is often very time consuming and frequently ineffective in that it changes little in the students' approach in the future. When students produce a piece of writing it can be marked subjectively or holistically. This means that an overall grade is given which does not take into account specific strengths and weaknesses such as spelling, sentence structure or punctuation but is concerned with the general impression. This is an assessment strategy which has no built in evaluation. Students do not know from a holistic mark where their weak points are or what they should do to improve. On the other hand, correcting every error in the writing has little or no evaluative worth either because it often leaves students feeling that they don't know where to start to improve.
• Evaluation in writing
In order to build evaluation into the assessment of writing during the course it is worth having an analytic marking scheme which the students are familiar with. If, for example, the piece of writing has a total of 20 marks, separate marks need to be allocated for each aspect of the writing. The teacher can put on the blackboard a list of the features to correct in a piece of writing and ask the students to decide how many marks they think should be given to each feature (with the total amounting to 20). When the students have a writing test or produce a piece of writing in class or for homework, marks can be given for each individual feature, eg 2/4 spelling, 3/5 punctuation etc. Before the students hand in the work, they can be asked to write their own grades for each feature at the bottom of the paper. This will encourage students not only to look through their work carefully when they have finished but will also help them evaluate their own weak and strong points.
• Follow up: writing
A breakdown of areas for marking will give the students a clearer idea of their strengths and weaknesses. Students who have spelling problems, for example, can be asked to analyse what kind of mistakes they make, perhaps to compare them with patterns of spelling errors in mother tongue. The teacher may then need to provide spelling worksheets or the students can be asked to prepare spelling quizzes. If all the students are weak on cohesion - that is, if the texts they write do not hang together well - it may be worth spending time analysing the texts in the student’s book or in other resources. Perhaps on one test, the students can be allowed to have English-English dictionaries, on the next test they could be allowed to take in English-mother tongue dictionaries. The teacher can then discuss with them afterwards the differences this made to their writing. Perhaps some students write and think very slowly and this affects their work. In this case the next writing test can be set with double the time limit, making sure there is something else for the students who finish early to do.
Assessment and evaluation cannot always walk hand in hand: assessment is needed for administration purposes, teachers, parents, students, employers and universities. However, the process of teaching and learning can benefit enormously from the flexibility provided by building evaluative systems into smaller assessment tests so that on going testing becomes a 'user-friendly' 'hand holding' activity rather than an isolating threat._
* The above article is courtesy of Mr Jim Kalathas, Senior ELT and Education Consultant, Cambridge University Press, Thessalonica.


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Site seeing
This column will suggest a web site at a time. For this issue we would like to recommend the web pages run by the Directorate for Secondary Education in Phthiotis, to be found in the URL address: http://dide.fth.sch.gr/ . It is an excellent, constantly updated site, containing useful data as regards all the latest developments in our clerical and educational field, comprising Ministry of Education circulars and bulletins or tables with names, information on appointments, transfers, detachments, running programmes and the like.

Site seeing
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is often associated with tedious, insensitive calculations or even idiotic premises resulting in preposterous conclusions. Not in this case! Anastasia Asikidou suggests hitting http://www.20q.net/, also known as the 20-question game, which is available in 18 languages (including Greek and English, thus ensuring easy understanding of the rules). This game should prove to be a great educational tool that’s guaranteed to offer endless moments of fun and immeasurable knowledge of the target language. Nevertheless, I ought to warn you about its being addictive, too!

ENGLISH LANGUAGE CERTIFICATES SANCTIONED BY Α.Σ.Ε.Π.
C2 Level: Excellent Knowledge
Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE)- Cambridge ESOL
Certificate of Proficiency in English (ECPE)-University of Michigan
Certificate of Proficiency in English (ToPSE)-University of Central Lancashire
Certificate of Proficient Communication-Edexcel
IELTS (7.5 and above)-UCLES
State Certificate of Language Proficiency C2-Ministry of Education
C1 Level: Very Good Knowledge
Certificate in Advanced English (CAE)-Cambridge ESOL
Advanced Level Certificate in English (ALCE)-HAU & the Hellenic American University
Certificate in Advanced Communication-Edexcel
TOIEC (785 and above)-Chauncey, USA
IELTS (6 to 7)-UCLES
Business English Certificate - Higher-UCLES
State Certificate of Language Proficiency C1-Ministry of Education
Integrated Skills in English Level 3-Trinity College, London
Certificate in English Level 3-University of Central Lancashire
B2 Level: Good Knowledge
First Certificate in English (FCE)-Cambridge ESOL
Certificate of Competency in English (ECCE)-University of Michigan
Certificate in Upper Intermediate Communication-Edexcel
TOIEC (505 and above)-Chauncey, USA
IELTS (4.5 to 5.5)-UCLES
Business English Certificate - Vantage-UCLES
State Certificate of Language Proficiency B2-Ministry of Education
Integrated Skills in English Level 2-Trinity College, London
Certificate in English Level 2-University of Central Lancashire

Site seeing
If you are one of those avant-garde EFL teachers, who also happen to have access to the Internet, then the British Council site http://www.britishcouncil.org/languageassistant.htmis a sine qua non. Its authors describe it as the place to find up-to-date tips, suggestions and teaching materials, and rightly so. It is worth mentioning that it also features games, lesson plans and a search facility that should meet the requirements of the most demanding teachers. For instance, the listening race game posted on http://www.britishcouncil.org/languageassistant-teacher-listening-race.htm will definitely take your breath away. Enjoy your navigation!





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ELT handbooks reviewed
A dilettantish critique for romantic and practical teachers alike
Reminisce about past moments and discover the areas you left unexplored (I bet some of you did so!)
This article is an attempt to describe briefly the EFL coursebooks used in Greece in the previous decades (between 1980 and 1995, to be more specific) as well as the series I have been using of late. To begin with the older titles, below, please see a list of what books I managed to recall. I’ve found the data concerning their authors and publishing houses by searching on the Net. Before I start recording my views on them, let me apologise for my poor account, especially in terms of the parlance involved in the literature. Needless to say, I do not aspire to an academic presentation.
1) On Course for First Certificate (Students’ Book) by Judy Garton-Sprenger and Simon Greenal, 1983, published by Heinemann
This was an attractive book covering a variety of topics, the accent being on tourism, travelling, transactions and journalism. It aimed at developing all four skills, if my memory doesn’t fail me. It was not accompanied by a video, let alone a CD/DVD rom component, yet it featured audiocassettes (many of them were informal interviews with both native and non-native speakers or pieces of authentic speaking, e.g. an extract from a film awards ceremony) to be listened by pupils, who had to fill in missing information or identify the tone (e.g. serious, light-hearted, sarcastic, angry, etc.) of individual speakers. I remember that there were also a number of occasions whereby intonation was the linguistic factor to be analysed, e.g. tag questions meaning either genuine wish to know something or merely asked for reassurance, the reply being certain. (In this case, students were required to listen to several utterances and mark the printed sentences with arrows showing a rising or a falling tone.)
2) Follow Me series by Ken Wilson, published by BBC English
This was an excellent video-assisted series, comprising at least two books. If featured both real-life dialogues with sundry people in England and a serial of mock-heroic or detective-like stories. I think this was the only book to offer “prefabricated” phrases as a strategy to get the conversation going. However, the so-called pre-watching activities often led to chaos and confusion; perhaps, this was the case because pupils’ expectations could hardly be the same as those anticipated by the English authors owing to either cultural differences or the fact that most learners were too young to make the necessary assumptions. By this I should note my feeling that FOLLOW ME was perhaps intended for adults rather than minors. Of course, when brilliant teachers succeeded in extracting the right responses the whole video watching experience was really rewarding!
3) This is a most useful site including information on older EFL handbooks: http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/booklistoe.html
4) Starting Out, Getting On and Turning Point (Access to English), 1976, published by Oxford
I recall this series with nostalgia. It featured the same characters from beginning to end, allegedly recounting a few people’s lives. [I wish more modern EFL authors adopted this pattern; currently, The Fantastic Five series by Burlington Books is a remarkable endeavour.] There was a happy ending with a wedding in D class (Turning Point), Arthur and Mary being the couple and the protagonists. Meanwhile, the syllabus was structure-based with activity books containing rigorous grammar exercises. As the characters came from England, there was an abundance of cultural background from that country (it definitely falls in the category of purely Anglo-centric books, I suppose) plus plenty of leaflet, press clip, application form and custom samples. As far as methodology is concerned, authors probably relied on the audio method, too, as every now and then, all three books had phonetic drills, ideal for choral repetition but barely appropriate for stimulating normal speech production or conversation between pairs or groups of pupils, I have to admit. Questions addressed by teachers to pupils were often inferential but they aimed at checking understanding of a written or spoken excerpt, not having a real communicative goal to serve.
5) More Tales from Shakespeare, adapted works, probably published by Penguin
At the phrontisterion we used to go through Hamlet. At the back there were questions checking understanding. None of them encouraged personalisation. I wish there had been prompts, like “What would you do if you found yourselves in X’s position?” or “Can you identify yourselves with a character in the play?” and the like. Obviously, Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences was not as widely known back then.
6) The Razor’s Edge by W. Somerset Maugham, adapted version 1975, published by Heinemann
Similar to the above, a novel set in the early decades of the 20th century. Both these literature works and the Access to English series had the advantage of motivating pupils to read on because they wanted to know how the stories unfolded and ended, though.
7) CLICK ON 1-3 by Express Publishing (See: www.expresspublishing.co.uk)
This is the series I have recently used with my EFL classes in the Lower Secondary School where I worked. Pupils are aged betwixt 13 and 15. In the first class, they have 3 periods of English per week whereas the other two forms have only 2 periods a week. Based on their performance on a placement test upon coming to Secondary School, pupils are divided into two streams: beginners and advanced ones. Beginners are expected to have mastered A2 level before going to Upper Secondary School or a trade school while advanced learners are to have mastered B1 level before their leaving Lower Secondary School.
I chose this series from a selection of 30-something titles approved by the Greek Ministry of Education. No such restriction applies in private language schools (phrontisteria), of course. What I like about it is its approach to English as an international language (EIL) rather than as purely British or American English. All books come with a free audio CD containing all texts and dialogues. In my humble opinion, this is useful only for motivated pupils who really care to perfect their pronunciation, not all of them. Personally, I feel that intelligibility combined with a somewhat clear understanding of English phonemes is enough for my students. Other listening excerpts, to be found in the teacher’s CDs only, include gap-filling tasks, matching exercises and even some nursery rhymes or modern-like songs to be heard or sung in class. Also, every unit has a pronunciation chapter familiarising pupils with certain sounds and their phonetic symbols, mainly by means of presenting minimal pairs, e.g.: /ı/ v /i:/ or /æ/ v /e/, etc. Pupils listen and chorally repeat. What’s special about CLICK ON though, is that every book is accompanied by a video cassette, featuring real people in the streets in the UK, focusing on the main vocabulary and speaking parts of each chapter. CLICK ON TV is a channel-like programme with interviews and short documentaries or reports by English correspondents who appear on the spot. Unfortunately, not all Greek school classes are equipped with a video, therefore, showing a clip entails some extra arrangements with the school premises. As a result, I didn’t show a video as often as I would like to. Besides, the video activities are not embedded in the students’ book as is the case with listening tasks but are printed on a separate Video Activity Book that the Ministry will not offer for free, so I resorted to photocopying the necessary material as I felt I was not entitled to have my pupils charged with purchasing an expensive book to boot. Thankfully, after-watching activities include simulation and role-playing, which is often to be dramatised and involves either pairs or groups of pupils. Helpful phrases to express topic-specific ideas or to initiate discussion, take turns and show (dis)agreement are invariably provided. Needless to remark, how my pupils took off, as it were, when they practised those phrases.
Incidentally, I should not fail to mention that CLICK ON also feature some strip cartoons with novels in episodes at the end of each chapter (Robin Hood, The Hound of the Baskervilles and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in CLICK ON 1, 2 and 3, respectively).
The same cartoons, with the dialogues in bubbles spoken, are shown in the abovementioned video. Perhaps, they’re rather poorly animated, yet the use of special effects is quite successful in riveting young pupils and activating their imagination thus creating a lasting impact as to their grasp of English, I hope. The stories, which are highly reminiscent of the FOLLOW ME comedy or social drama episodes, are quite appealing. (There’s no accounting for tastes, you see! To be honest, I strongly disliked Robin Hood, the supporter of Richard the “lion-heart”, who seized Cyprus from us and I have an aversion towards the diabolical preternatural stuff enjoyed by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Thus, I only showed Mark Twain’s boy in class!). Once again, video activities include personalisation, asking what course of action should be followed or what pupils believe will ensue and so on.
Finally, CLICK ON books also give out a free study aid companion, which is virtually a leaflet, containing new lexical items per unit, task and page, including an English translation of each word or phrase, a Greek equivalent, plus phonetic symbols, presumably the perfect tool for developing self-study and learner autonomy. Added to that, at the back of each book there is a Grammar Appendix corresponding to each grammar component in each unit and a list of common irregular verbs. Unfortunately, the grammar section is in English and this proves extremely obstructive, especially for beginners, who are filled with jargon and an overload of complicated lexis while they simultaneously have to acquire unfamiliar stuff anyway.
At this point, my comments and criticism ought to be completed, I suppose. Do you relate to these criteria for assessing an ELT handbook? Drop me a line at hadji@uom.gr .


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Correspondence A
Our Union committee sent a separate copy of the following letter to the Minister and the Deputy Ministers of Education by registered post last May. Unfortunately, we have not heard from them thus far, although we deliberately phrased the text as an enquiry, hoping that we would receive a reply from a public organisation, as is stipulated by law.

Προς την Υπουργό Εθνικής Παιδείας & Θρησκευμάτων
κυρία Μαριέττα Γιαννάκου,
τους Υφυπουργούς Παιδείας
κυρίους Γεώργιο Καλό &
Σπυρίδωνα Ταλιαδούρο,
Ανδρέα Παπανδρέου 37,
151 80 ΑΜΑΡΟΥΣΙΟΝ ΑΤΤΙΚΗΣ

Βέροια, 15 Μαΐου 2007
Αξιότιμη κυρία Υπουργέ,
αξιότιμοι κύριοι Υφυπουργοί,
λαμβάνουμε την τιμή να σας απευθύνουμε την παρούσα επιστολή για να ζητήσουμε να μας πληροφορήσετε ποια νομοθετικά/διοικητικά μέτρα προτίθεται να λάβει το Υπουργείο του οποίου ηγείσθε, προκειμένου να αντιμετωπίσει τα παρακάτω ζητήματα που αφορούν τους εκπαιδευτικούς Π.Ε. 6, καθηγητές αγγλικής.
1) Είναι γνωστό ότι πολλοί καθηγητές, προ του διορισμού τους στο Δημόσιο, εργάσθηκαν (πολλοί μάλιστα εντατικά) σε φροντιστήρια/κέντρα ξένων γλωσσών. Μολονότι τα έτη εργασίας τους στον ιδιωτικό τομέα αναγνωρίζονται ως συντάξιμα, δεν αναγνωρίζονται ως έτη προϋπηρεσίας, εκτός αν η διδασκαλία πραγματοποιήθηκε σε ιδιωτικά σχολεία ή π.χ. στο Βρετανικό Συμβούλιο. Πώς σκοπεύει το Υπουργείο να αντιμετωπίσει την άνιση μεταχείριση εις βάρος των εν λόγω καθηγητών; Δυστυχώς, οι προκάτοχοί σας δεν έλαβαν κανένα μέτρο για να αποκαταστήσουν την ανωτέρω αδικία.
2) Η διοργάνωση των εξετάσεων για το Κρατικό Πιστοποιητικό Γλωσσομάθειας υπό την αιγίδα του Υπουργείου τυγχάνει πράγματι αξιέπαινη. Δεν θα μπορούσε η Διεύθυνση Πιστοποίησης Ξένων Γλωσσών (μετατρεπόμενη σε νομικό πρόσωπο ανάλογο με το Βρετανικό Συμβούλιο και την Ελληνο-Αμερικανική Ένωση κατά τα πρότυπα του Ο.Ε.Ε.Κ., ίσως) να δικαιούται να παρέχει και επίσημες μεταφράσεις/επικυρώσεις τις οποίες θα πραγματοποιούν απασχολούμενοι, όπως και με τις εξετάσεις για το ΚΠγ, πτυχιούχοι Π.Ε. 6. και άλλων ξένων φιλολογιών; Οι υπηρεσίες αυτές δύνανται να διεκπεραιώνονται μέσω των κατά τόπους γραφείων και διευθύνσεων Α΄/βάθμιας και Β΄/βάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης. Το μητρώο των επισήμων μεταφραστών να εμπλουτίζεται διηνεκώς με σταθερές, διαφανείς διαδικασίες, ασχέτως αν πρόκειται περί διορισμένων στο δημόσιο καθηγητών ή εργαζομένων στον ιδιωτικό τομέα. Πώς βλέπει το Υπουργείο την παραπάνω πρόταση;
3) Σε αντίθεση με τους καθηγητές αγγλικής της Β΄/βάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης, οι της Α΄/βάθμιας συνάδελφοί μας, καθηγητές αγγλικής γλώσσας, έχουν αυξημένο ωράριο και αμείβονται χαμηλότερα. Είναι πλέον δυνατόν, λόγου χάρη, να συμβεί το παράδοξο νεοδιόριστος καθηγητής πρωτοβάθμιας να αποσπαστεί σε σχολείο δευτεροβάθμιας για να συμπληρώσει το υποχρεωτικό του ωράριο των 24 ωρών, ενώ ο συνάδελφός του της δευτεροβάθμιας να αποσπαστεί σε δημοτικό σχολείο της πρωτοβάθμιας για να συμπληρώσει το υποχρεωτικό ωράριο των 21 ωρών. Δεν θα έπρεπε να διορθωθεί η αντινομία αυτή;
4) Σχετικό με τα παραπάνω είναι και το αίτημά μας οι καθηγητές να ερωτώνται εάν επιθυμούν να αποσπαστούν σε σχολείο άλλης βαθμίδας από αυτήν στην οποία ανήκουν οργανικά (Α΄/βάθμια ή Β΄/βάθμια). Έτσι, η ευελιξία θα συνδυάζεται και με τον εθελοντισμό, του οποίου η αξία μόλις χρειάζεται να τονιστεί. Με δεδομένη την κατάσταση που περιγράφεται στην παράγραφο 3, δεν θα είναι, αν η απόσπαση δεν γίνεται καταναγκαστικά, πιο δίκαιη και πιο αποτελεσματική η διαχείριση του Ανθρωπίνου Δυναμικού σε κάθε Διεύθυνση;
5) Δυστυχώς, στα νεότευκτα Επαγγελματικά Λύκεια, η αγγλική δεν διδάσκεται σε όλες τις ειδικότητες –σε μερικές διδάσκεται μόνο η γαλλική (!)– ενώ στις Επαγγελματικές Σχολές δεν προβλέπεται προς το παρόν η διδασκαλία της σε καμμία ειδικότητα. Δεν είναι πολύτιμο χρηστικό εργαλείο (εφάμιλλο, αν όχι ανώτερο της Πληροφορικής) η γνώση της αγγλικής και δη της σχετικής ορολογίας στα τεχνικά επαγγέλματα; Και πώς οι απόφοιτοι ΕΠΑ.Λ. / ΕΠΑ.Σ, σε περίπτωση που εισαχθούν σε ΑΕΙ ή ΑΤΕΙ οι πρώτοι και σε ΑΤΕΙ οι δεύτεροι, θα παρακολουθήσουν τα αγγλικά ορολογίας στο Τμήμα τους, τη στιγμή που επί τρία χρόνια θα τούς έχουμε στερήσει την πρόσβαση στην αγγλική γλώσσα;
Κα Υπουργέ, κ.κ. Υφυπουργοί, έχουμε την ελπίδα ότι θα τείνετε «ευήκοον ους» στις ερωτήματά μας και αδημονούμε να λάβουμε την απάντησή σας.
Με εκτίμηση, εκ μέρους του Δ.Σ.,
Ο πρόεδρος
Χατζηνικολάου Δημήτριος
Η γραμματέας
Φουτζιτζή Μαρία

Correspondence B
Also, on 3rd June, the chairman of our Union sent the e-mail below to the Hellenic American Union, re a controversial topic in the writing part of the May Examinations for the Certificate of Competency in English. Much to our chagrin, we have to observe that HAU have failed to answer his questions.

Dear Sir or Madam,
I am writing with reference to one of the writing topics set in the ECCE examination of Saturday 19 May instant.
It has come to my attention that the specific topic in which I am interested concerned national anniversaries. As a matter of fact, teachers of English and candidates, acquaintances of mine, have told me that they were offended by the way the subject was phrased.You are kindly requested to send me the exact task so that I have full knowledge myself, as a teacher of English and chairman of the local English Teachers’ Union (Emathia). I am certain that you will meet my request because, inter alia, it would be unfair to blame the University of Michigan in general and the Hellenic American Union in particular based on rumours. On the other hand, sadly, as you are well aware, your possible failure to provide me with a copy of the task will only reinforce your critics’ claims.
Thanking you in advance for a prompt reply.
Yours faithfully,
Demetrios Hadjinicolaou
EFL teacher


Home

Site seeing
Electronic classroom management is now possible! Since December 2006, when the interactive portal http://eclass.sch.gr was launched, Internet Technology aficionados in the public ELT sector have found an enormously practical tool, which is bound to make their classes uniquely inspirational, motivational and exciting. From simply keeping a digital archive of their documents, worksheets, games, exercises and activities, to virtually administering their classes online, catering for highschool pupils who are so fond of surfing the Net and the ones who missed a class because they were ill, this portal has everything: subject description, a material book, material to be taught, exercises, links and announcements. The only disadvantage is that teachers have to fill in all these data, but it is certain that dedicated educationists of all specialities will not be daunted. Kindly note that you have to be registered with http://www.sch.gr before you can start managing your own e-classes.

Oral examination practice


Personal Information
Good evening! My name’s Penelope Antoniadou and I am a member of a family with three children. My elder brother’s currently doing his military service while my younger sister is still at primary school. Besides, my father’s a taxi driver and my mother a bank clerk. In spite of/despite the fact we don’t see one another for much time, especially during weekdays, notwithstanding, our family ties remain quite strong. As a result, we enjoy beguiling our leisure time by telling jokes and ribbing each other.
Hello! I’m Sebastian Rodinos. I’m seventeen and, like many other boys my age, I study at a state school and attend private tuition classes on a few school subjects. Incidentally, I’ve been studying English for seven years. I can’t say that any of these fields makes me exuberantly happy or desperately miserable, though. Sometimes, I get enthusiastic at the prospect of achieving a high score at school. But what makes me feel strongly about is people’s attitude towards certain ideals, such as love, freedom and social justice. I’m afraid that with the decline of people’s attachment to religious faith and moral values the foregoing ideals are disregarded, which has always had disastrous effects (up)on humanity. I hope that in the future I’ll be able to act with a view to helping my neighbour, perhaps, by joining an organisation like the Red Cross.
Hi! I’m Alexandra Hadjispyrou. I consider myself to be a votary of fine arts. Not only do I go to most cultural events held in my region, such as concerts, painting and sculpture exhibitions, dance shows, etc. but also I’m an artist myself! Needless to say that my room is decorated with paintings and handicrafts exclusively made by me. Nonetheless, I’ve manufactured some jewels. Some people believe I’m obsessed with art, but the truth is I’m having a wonderful time. For one thing, these activities are an excellent channel to my energetic personality and offer me self-fulfilment and self-expression. In addition, I’m frequently given the opportunity to socialise with other people involved in what you might call an incurable mania for art.
Good afternoon! My name’s Andrew Ioannides, and I’m sixteen. I’m deeply fond of sports and gymnastics. At present, I’m registered at a local tennis club for young athletes but I also go training at kickboxing on a regular basis. Actually, I spend at least three hours a day running, jogging and exercising so as to keep fit along with my training courses. I believe that sports contribute to a person’s normal muscular and skeletal development. Except for giving the body a nice shape, however, athletics may help one strengthen one’s will and acquire virtues, like persistence, self-discipline, toughness and manliness. Furthermore, participating in a match can well prove a way of making friends and gaining self-respect by adopting sportsmanlike behaviour patterns.
Hello! I’m Eunice Papadopoulou, I’m fifteen years old and I come from, and live in, Berrhoea. I attend classes at “Philippeion” Lower Secondary School. In actuality, I’m a third-former. As for my preferences, well, I adore inorganic chemistry; its exercises fascinate me whereas I’m always keen to conduct mini experiments causing chemical reactions in our laboratory… Not surprisingly, though, I find it hard to cope with some problems when too much Maths is involved. Yet, I think I should like to occupy myself with chemistry in the future and, perhaps, take to teaching.
Task for homework: write a short text referring to your own identity (status and interests / activities or ambitions). _


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Fluency


1) I’m resident in Berrhoea. She’s talented in playing chess. He’s well-mannered but very shy. Experienced/specialised in computer programming. Fluent in English. They have a background in personal training. He’s good at organising seminars. They deal with personnel issues. She is responsible for our marketing policy. Who is in charge of the sales department? He is qualified enough for this post. He is the person that reports directly to the Manager. The factory is located in the industrial zone. She has been working as an executive secretary for the last five years. I was employed by Mr Smith two years ago. Since I left university I have worked for “Network”, where I am responsible for developing and maintaining office systems.
2) It’s the same as yours. This place is much different from my hometown. There are some differences/similarities between the two species. As identical twins, they look alike. This cloud looks like a bird. They both reacted similarly/in a similar way.
3) Waste paper is sorted and converted/changed into pulp. She’s a pretty dark-haired teenager with green eyes. Compared to the old model, this one is less practical. It’s rather expensive, I’m afraid. Having undergone quality control, the product is packed and kept in storehouses. As a first step, each vessel is cleaned, before use.
4) TRY TO USE MODALS, QUESTION TAGS AND LINKING DEVICES LIKE “IN CASE”. You can borrow my Walkman as long as you take good care of it. Candidates will be asked for an interview provided they have references. From his behaviour I concluded that he was lying. It is expected that in a few years most schools will be using multimedia technologies. It is estimated that this project will have been completed by the end of this month. There is no evidence of malfunction. It’s obvious she’s v. upset.
5) Do you agree? What do you think? So do I. I don’t either. Neither do I. Indeed. Precisely. I couldn’t agree more/By all means! Absolutely! Definitely. I suppose so. If you say so. You might be right but… I believe not. I strongly disagree. No way! Absolutely, I can’t accept the fact that… I strongly disagree. Come on!
6) Must you leave so soon? Is that necessarily so? Working experience is an essential job qualification. These documents are required to get the loan. It needs polishing. You needn’t hurry.
7) I adore cycling. I hate hypocrisy. I can’t stand being kept waiting for so long. I’m all for it! I have no preference. You choose! It’s up to you to decide. I don’t mind. I’d rather not go out. I feel more like going to bed.
8) She’s planning to buy a new house. I’m thinking of passing by. It’s not among my intentions to quit. I blame myself. There’s no one to blame. You are to blame for this mess. I’m terribly sorry. Will you forgive me? How silly of me! I apologise for not replying in due time. Please, accept our apologies for the delayed despatch of goods. He regretted having sold the house.
9) That’d be nice. I’m afraid, I can’t/won’t. I can’t see myself climbing that rock. Thanks, I can manage. Don’t bother. This is… I’m… Nice/Pleased to meet you. Meet my… I’d like you to meet my… Let me introduce you to…/myself. Hi! How are you keeping/doing/getting on? Well, so and so. It’s been nice meeting you. See you (later). Farewell! Look after yourself. (Do) keep in touch. Keep well! So long. All the best!
10) Will you be coming to my birthday party? How about joining me to the excursion? We have the pleasure in inviting you to our sixth anniversary. I’d love to. I’d be delighted to join you. With (great) pleasure! I’m afraid I’ll be unable to come because I have to study. Please, help yourself! Cheers! Your (very) good health! Here’s to you!
11) In brief,../to cut a long story short,.. What do you mean by…? Could you be more specific? I’ll put it this way: Is it clear? This is wrong/not exactly what I meant. Let me start again. What’s its name. What do you call it. What’s the word for it. How shall I put it…
12) CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING ADVICE:
Dear Constantine,

Here’s some advice on speaking:
a) had better + bare infinitive, e.g: “I think we’d better put the manager’s desk next to the bookcase.”
b) would rather + bare infinitive = prefer, e.g: “I’d rather do a sport than take up a foreign language.”
c) would rather + different subject + past, e.g: “I’d rather we watched that film.”
d) suggest + gerund/that clause, e.g: “I suggest having a break/that we should have a break.”
e) would prefer + infinitive, e.g: “I’d prefer to go on holiday to a resort rather than climb up a mountain.”
f) prefer + gerund, e.g: “I prefer reading a book to watching TV.”
Also, please go through the following examples:
i) “Why not consider building the sports centre there? It’d be more convenient for kids.”
ii) “Why don’t we buy some sweets for the event?”
iii) “Let’s collect some money for a charity.”
iv) “I’d love to go to a concert, as I’m fond of/keen on listening to classical music.”
v) “In the former case (≈ first picture) people seem to be enjoying themselves more than in the latter case.”
vi) “Well, if I had a day off, I’d go to Hagios Nicolaos, which is a huge park with lots of plane trees, streams, ponds and plenty of sports facilities such as tennis and basketball courts, a golf course and even a skating rink.”
That’s all for the moment! I hope I’ve been of some help. Wish I could do more though. Anyway, feel at ease to ask me anything you may need. Good luck, chap!
Yours,
Demetrios


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Globalisation


For and against
BBC News Online asked Michael Elliot, former editor-in-chief of ecountries.com and Newsweek International -a passionate believer in the benefits of globalisation- to debate the issue with Colin Hines, author of localisation – A Global Manifesto:
“Dear Colin,
Although trade between nations and peoples is as old as civilisation itself, in the last two decades world-shrinking technologies have enabled economies to be bound ever tighter together. We all know the examples: the software developers of Bangalore coding text for banks in the United States, the textile and toy plants of China supplying stores in London and Paris; the fresh flowers that wing their way from Africa to the tables of Europe.
I believe that globalisation is a powerful force for the good, for three reasons:
· First, by giving millions of people new choices both as to life-chances and the goods and services they consume, it enhances human liberty.
· Second, because globalisation is based on trade –and trade, by allowing economies to concentrate on what they do best, raises incomes everywhere.
· Third – and by far the most important – globalisation allows us the chance to build One World. By that I don’t mean a world where everyone thinks, dresses, prays and plays in the same way, but a world in which we better understand our neighbours’ hopes and dreams.
Michael”
“Dear Michael,
Your illustrations of positive aspects of globalisation are good for the companies and more affluent consumers who benefit from cheaper bank workers in Bangalore and cheaper toys, textiles and African flowers.
However the downsides of your examples are job losses in US banks, lost textile and toy manufacturers jobs in Britain and France and land that should be used for growing staples for Kenyans’ tables being diverted to prettify our tables.
Your three forces for good are equally questionable. Of course people like increased choice from imports, but increasingly not when they realise they are likely to be at the expense of domestic industry and jobs. Even the World Bank now distances itself from the nonsense that trade raises income everywhere. Their latest Development Report documents that the average income in the richest 20 countries is 37 times the average in the poorest 20 – a gap that has doubled in the past 40 years.
Colin”
“Dear Michael,
On a moral level, I’m no happier than you at growing gaps of wealth and income. But the extraordinary wealth gains of some in the rich world should not obscure the real and significant improvement of life chances among the poor – a process that can’t exist without economic growth. The Chinese family whose home now has a fan to mitigate the summer heat; the Ecuadorean farmer who now has a moped; the African who can check crop prices on a mobile phone – all of these have had their lives made better by relative increases in prosperity.
Michael”
“Dear Michael,
To be against globalisation is not to be against the provision of fans in China and the like. Far from it, we feel that it is the ruthless competition inherent in today’s world that narrows the base of economic activity to one emphasising exports. This reduces the diversity of domestic economies and hence their ability to provide such goods themselves. Local production would ensure more jobs hence more disposable income. We at Prague want the economy to be organised to meet peoples’ needs sustainably through localisation, with its emphasis of protect the local, globally. This alternative to globalisation is truly internationalist in its desire to improve living standards for the vast majority, not of an ever smaller number of incredibly wealthy individuals. After all Michael can you really begin to justify Bill Gates being wealthier than the 100 million poorest Americans combined?
Colin”
“Dear Colin,
The heart of globalisation, for me, is distance learning on the internet, enhancing the skills of villagers in India; “distant surgery” using robots to perform medical procedures thousands of miles from a doctor; and (why not?) the new understanding of at least the surface of new cultures that is a consequence of mass tourism.
If I really thought that globalisation was likely to lead to a bland, homogeneous world, turning our planet into one great Omaha, I’d be on the barricades in Prague. But technology gives us the chance to so something new and rather wonderful – to come closer to each other while maintaining what it is that best defines us.
That’s why globalisation is good for you”
Michael”
“Dear Michael,
The alternative that is beginning to emerge post-Seattle is “localisation”. This is a process towards the position whereby everything that could be produced within a nation or region should be. Long-distance trade is then reduced to supplying what could not come from within one country or geographical grouping of countries.
This would allow an increase in local control of the economy and the potential for it being shared out more fairly, locally. Technology and information, like your examples of distance learning and cultural exchange, would be encouraged to flow, when and where it can strengthen local economies. Under these circumstances, beggar-your-neighbour globalisation gives way to the potentially more co-operative better-your neighbour localisation.
To paraphrase you, that’s why localisation is good for you.
Colin”.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/nesid_941000/941031.stm



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Socialising (These prompts are primarily meant for FCE candidates.)


Q: Can you tell us a little about where you’re from?
A: I’m from Berrhoea by birth although my parents’ origin(s) is from Peloponnese. Since I’ve been living in this town for fifteen years, I suppose I’ve acquired its local colour, which isn’t v. distinctive anyway.
Q: Is it known for anything in particular?
A: For one thing, Berrhoea is famous for its numerous old churches (nowadays there’re forty-eight of them). Besides, it’s known for its gastronomic special(i)ty named “revani” – a sweet made of milk, eggs, and semolina.
Q: Could you tell me about your plans for the future?
A: Well, I think I’m too young to be making any plans, I just envisage/envision that I’d become a journalist when I grow up; the idea of having access to, and conveying, up-to-date information really appeals to me. I’d also like to take to computing seriously.
Q: How did you become interested in computers?
A: On the one hand, computing is one of our school subjects. Often, I’m amazed at the enormous potential computers have, especially with regard to the Internet. After all, my father says computer-literacy is indispensable if I am to follow a brilliant career.
Q: How do you usually spend your free time?
A: Oh! I do lots of things but what I enjoy most is painting. I regard it as the ideal way to express myself and give a channel to my strong feelings and… desires!
Q: How did you become interested in painting?
A: I know what I’m going to tell you sounds a bit arrogant but it’s true, for, as time passed, I realised that I’m somewhat talented! I wouldn’t take pride in that of course – I know it’s hereditary.
Q: What’s the area you live in like?
A: It’s quite strange – I mean it’s something in-between a town and countryside. There’re plenty of blocks of flats/high rises but most of them are surrounded by gardens and trees.
Q: Would you ever consider moving to the country?
A: I don’t think so. My neighbourhood overlooks the opposite bank of the Tripotamos. Thanks to its vegetation it has a lot of fresh air, too. Furthermore, it combines a few urban facilities, such as schools and supermarkets, which are scarce in the country.
Q: Where do you usually go on holiday?
A: My family and I either rent a room in a seaside resort of Chalcidice or go to our villa at Xeroleibadon.
Q: And what do you do while you’re on holiday?
A: I enjoy the amenities of nature; when by the sea, I go swimming, boating, fishing and sunbathing. At Bermion, I go hiking and trekking all over the woods and highlands. In parallel, I meet old acquaintances and make new friends.
Q: What kind of music do you like?
A: I’m deeply fond of Greek pop music. I think it’s good fun and highly inspiring. I believe most pop singers offer a lot to the present generations, which are overwhelmed by stress and nervousness.
Q2: What sort of music do you like?
A2: Mainly Greek pop music. It sounds excellent. I do esteem modern artists and music currently produced is superb: witty lyrics, captivating melodies, catchy rhythms.
Q: How do you dress when you go dancing?
A: I don’t put on anything in particular. I always dress casually, so my clothing is cool and light. I might choose something more expensive and more glamo(u)rous than what I usually wear on special occasions, though.
Q: Can you tell me a little about your family?
A: My family consists of five members. I’ve got two younger brothers who attend primary/elementary school. Fortunately, all four of my grandparents are still alive and we enjoy their companionship and wisdom.
Q: Would you like to do your father’s job when you leave school?
A: My father’s a building contractor and, to the present, I don’t feel like following in his footsteps. First of all, I think that this occupation is not appropriate for a woman…
Q: How long have you been learning English?
A: For six years but I still have some difficulty (in) mastering some of its grammatical structures and a great deal of its vocabulary. Nevertheless, I hesitate to speak the language for fear of making mistakes.
Q: How important is English for your future plans?
A: Well, I can’t tell exactly but, provided that for virtually every post employers require a competent user of English, I assume it’ll better my future prospects.
Q: Do you do any sports?
A: Yes, I do gymnastics. I’m lucky enough to be at a school with a well-equipped gymnasium. What’s more, our gym master is very helpful. The only problem is that I haven’t got the time to practise more often than I do.
Q: Do you think it’s important to do a sport?
A: Sure, it’s indispensable. First, it exhilarates and strengthens you. Secondly, it makes you fit and disciplined. And… compared to other pastimes like watching television or playing computer games it’s far better for people my age.
Q: What kind of food do you like?
A: I eat almost everything because I believe that I’d be even fed up with the most delicious food if I were to eat it daily. My favourite dish though is moussaka, baked aubergines with mashed meat and cream.
Q: Where do you go with your friends in your spare time?
A: We usually go for a walk at a park or go window-shopping. Often we go to a coffee bar or to watch a film at the cinema/movie theater.
Q: Which do you prefer more, watching TV or going to the cinema?
A: Both have advantages and drawbacks; the former is cheaper and more easily accessible whereas the latter offers the chance to meet others. On the other hand, quality films don’t appear on TV until long later than cinema.
Q: What sort of films do you like?
A: I adore thrillers, since I relish the sense of adventure and I consider myself a man of action. I also love comedies; some actors are such good fun that I hold my sides with laughter.
Q2: How about you, do you watch much TV?
A2: No, not really. I’d rather read a magazine or turn on the radio to listen to music. By the way, I’ve got a fine collection of CDs.
Q: What’s the weather like today?
A: It’s warm and pretty sunny with some spells of cloudiness.
Q: Does the weather affect the way you feel at all?
A: Hardly ever; I spend most of my time indoors without looking through any window. As a result, most of the time I don’t even realise when the sun sets!
Q2: How about you?
A2: Contrary to my interlocutor my disposition gravely depends (up)on weather conditions. You see, I tend to feel optimistic when it’s sunny but sad when it’s cloudy.
Q: What are your plans for the summer holidays?
A: I haven’t made up my mind yet. I hope I’ll be visiting my cousin who studies in Rome by the end of June. Perhaps then we’ll fly back to Greece together and tour round the Cyclades._


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Macedonia


Two letters sent to publishers and webmasters regarding the Macedonian issue, and a useful link
Dear Sir,
I was astonished to see that on your home website you refer to the pseudo-named republic of Scopje as "the republic of Macedonia".
Any historian will assure that the Hellenic word Macedonia, deriving from "macos" (=length) was used by the communist leader Tito for the first time in 1944 as allegedly signifying a non-Greek Slavic nation. The communist oppressor appropriated the Greek term Macedonia because he coveted the free district of Greece that has been carrying the same name since at least 2000 B.C.
In actuality, Macedonia has always been a Greek area and true Macedonians like me since Alexander the Great's time and earlier until today have been Greeks. As for ancient Macedonian, it was a purely Greek dialect like Attic, Ionian, Doric, Cypriot etc. (This is exactly why Alexander the Great imparted the Greek civilisation and, as a result, the era after him is known as Hellenistic.) Besides, Slavs and Bulgarians did not appear in the Balkans until the 6th century AD and their numbers have always been far smaller than the local population.
Therefore, I hope that you will henceforth eschew using the Greek name of Macedonia in order to refer to the republic of Scopje, whose only connection with Macedonia is that it occupies less than 20% of the area called Macedonia in ancient, mediaeval and modern times until 1912.I am certain that you are honest and would not like to be an accomplice to one of the worst forgeries ever taken place in human history.
Yours faithfully,
Demetrios Hadjinicolaou
EFL teacher
Dear Sirs,
I should like to state my disagreement over certain public figures reiterating the Scopjan claim that Greece has not reacted to their using the name of Macedonia since the 1940s. Now, their false argument goes, there are two generations of Scopje nationals who believe themselves to be Macedonians.
This line of thinking is fundamentally wrong. To start with, a crime does not cease to be a crime when few people react to it. Secondly, the present-day pseudo-named republic of Scopje, geographically speaking, occupies land that is part of Macedonia. (Achris and Monasterion, Strymonis and Geugele have been inhabited by Greeks, true Macedonians, for millennia. By the way, there has not been an exchange of populations between Greece and Serbia, unlike what happened with Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria in the 1920s. Besides, in the referendum organised by Kyro Glegorov in the 1990s over 10% of the voters asked to be united with Greece.) Therefore, to state that Scopjie occupies part of Macedonia that was, alas, not liberated in 1912 and to call part of Scopje territory as Macedonia is absolutely right. Similarly, it is right to call territories like North Epirus, Eastern Thrace and North Thrace (Eastern Romylia) with their proper Greek names even if they happen to be part of other countries at present. However, Greece has never accepted and will never accept the (potential) allegation that there is a separate Macedonian, Epirote or Thracian nation or language. This is why official Greece did not object to Scopje, which despite their nominal federal republic were nothing but a province until 1992, being called Macedonia in certain maps. However, it is impossible for a Greek government to recognise a state carrying the term Macedonia even in a compound name, especially if this state forges history and contemporary facts by claiming that there have been Macedonians who are not Greeks. Even in case all states on earth decided to make themselves accomplices to such forgery, Greece oughtn't to endorse it ever.
In addition, Greece should remind the international community of the abduction of some 29,000 minors during the warfare of 1945-1949 by communist Tito-sponsored guerrillas. These children, who were the 20th century's janissaries, were indoctrinated with hatred against Greece and with the fake identity of a non-existent, Bulgarian speaking Macedonian nation. These kids were the innocent victims of a tragedy and keeping them to darkness shows lack of mercy, not justice and love.
Finally, Greek MPs and diplomats should always carry in mind that true Macedonians like Alexander the Great, Saint Cyril and Methodios and people like me, have been unquestionably Greek for at least 4,000 years. We shall never consent to having our name, title, rights and identity usurped by a group of fraudulent or misguided individuals, who may have wrongly considered themselves Macedonians for a few decades. Counterfeiting of history must stop.
Yours faitfully,
Demetrios Hadjinicolaou
hadji@mail.gr
Note: For further information see http://web.mit.edu/hellenic/www/macedonia.html


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Composition/Theme:


"The recent introduction of a common currency, i.e. the euro in twelve member states of the European union has been a significant move towards their integration. Consider the pros and cons of such a development."

From a historical point of view, Europe is in a process of unprecedented integration on both an economic and a political level. Far from being clear per se, the European vision seems to be on the verge of its fulfilment. None the less, the implications of the aforementioned statement have yet to be analysed.In the first place, the common legal tender along with harmonised fiscal and especially taxation policies are hoped to encourage free trade links between different member states and promote healthy competition to the advantage of consumers. Goods and services across the euro-zone are expected to be available at relatively affordable prices, for commissions paid to banks for exchange will no longer be required and excise as well as customs duties tend to be curtailed or even altogether abolished. In parallel, possible purchasers have the chance to compare prices instantly from country to country.To continue, reliable financial institutions, such as the Central European Bank, could safeguard stability and sustained growth by effectively controlling interest rates. In the long run, per capita income and living standards in general will be raised. Hence, the peril of recessions may be stove off.However, along with the benefits come the risks and costs, Eurosceptics warn. For instance, less privileged countries with poor infrastructure and small-scale entrepreneurs lacking substantial funds will not be able to catch up with their more developed counterparts and be competitive enough; therefore, they are bound to stagnate. Likewise, no country will be eligible to devalue its currency in order to boost exports and enhance home development. Moreover, the creation and maintenance of an immense, supranational state will pose a heavy burden on taxpayers.Having said this, if national governments decide to relinquish more power to a body of Eurocrats, the democratic accountability of the EU as a whole might be disputed. Secondly, surrendering sovereignty and the right of veto would lead to negligence of particular national interests, since, as experience has shown thus far, larger ethnic groups mostly sideline minorities in a same state. In corroboration of the above, it would be irrational to presume that all EU residents should be levelled regardless of their cultural background and assume that there is a panacea for all the ills of the population irrespective of its diversity.Incidentally, one cannot but notice a paradoxically inverse trend when it comes to the behaviour of certain EU nationals towards other people whose countries do not happen to belong to the EU no matter whether they are part of Europe or not. On sundry occasions, some otherwise fervent supporters of globalisation become perfect segregationists, envisaging a vast European republican oligarchy, as it were, whereby only the ones fortunate enough to have been born in a developed country or one that joined the EU on time are fully entitled to civil liberties whereas everyone else is deemed to be a second-class citizen. On an official level, this tendency manifests itself through prohibitive legislation and bureaucracy as regards groups of people, like asylum seekers, migrants and refugees. On the other hand, ordinary people exhibit regrettable signs of racism or xenophobia.On the brighter side, a strong EU can well be an ideal haven for employment, innovation, culture, security, environmentalism, social justice and many more. More specifically, the dissemination of information on the job market throughout Europe will probably create new career opportunities. Similarly, sharing standardised patterns in technology, science or education will result in important improvements in these sectors at a quick pace. Nevertheless, cultivating Europe’s rich as well as diverse heritage will help Europeans come to terms with each other and promote friendship and understanding internationally. What is more, the co-operation of national authorities in fighting crime (for example, drug trafficking or terrorism) may prove salutary to the public as long as individual freedom is guaranteed. Added to that, protecting the environment and combating pollution are two objectives that could better be achieved on condition that drastic measures are taken and applied internationally rather than locally. Last but not least, EU citizens will enjoy equality before the law. To illustrate this, if Britons have the right to access a private university, so have Greeks, as everyone is to be treated on an egalitarian basis. Besides, citizens will no longer be exposed to state arbitrariness without being able to appeal to a court of human rights upon which the government they sue cannot exercise any pressure.In the final analysis, the advantages far outweigh the drawbacks. The EU can establish long-term peace and development for its member states. At the same time, prosperity can be combined with genuine democratic institutions and international co-operation. To that end, it would be advisable for EU enlargement to take place soon. Also, successful types of government in multinational states, like Belgium or Switzerland ought to be emulated in a spirit of open-mindedness, tolerance and respect for cultural diversity. The introduction of referendums on essential issues, for instance, would consolidate future decisions. In any case, it has to be remembered that even the best ideas cannot succeed when they are imposed on people. -


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Right or service?


Higher education

The extract below was part of a magazine article on access to higher education. Your teacher has asked you to write an essay in response to the opinions expressed in the article and to give your own views. Write an essay with the title: “Higher education: right or service?”

Why shouldn’t those who benefit from the better job prospects that studying at university gives them not be asked to pay for the service? People who get a higher education invariably get better-paid jobs, so I don’t see why those who cannot or choose not to go to university should indirectly support those who do. A loan system whereby student loans would be gradually repaid after graduation not only seems a fairer system but might also encourage those who currently get to university not to take the opportunity for granted and make a bit more of their time there.

Many a time, what seems to be a dilemma between two diametrically opposed states of affairs is only superficial. If further pursuing one’s studies after secondary school is to be deemed a universal right, then it should be assumed that higher education is either necessary or desirable for virtually everyone. Such an assumption would be obviously wrong. On the other hand, if going to university simply amounts to a service not needed or aspired to by everybody, it cannot be offered to anyone free of charge. Non sequitur!First, despite Mr Smith’s allegations in The Guardian, university graduates are anything but privileged. To say that they get better paid jobs is only half the truth. The complete truth would be that they get better paid jobs if and when they get them. Most employers prefer non-graduates so that they can pay less. Thus, the fact mentioned above, far from being a privilege, turns out to be an encumbrance to university graduates.Second, if we wish to make our society fairer, based on real merit rather than on favouritism, nepotism or (ill-gained) money, we ought to encourage as many people who are eager to go to university as possible to fulfil their ambition, lifting all restrictions and financial burdens. By compelling poorer students to borrow money in order to pay for tuition fees as though accommodation and book expenditure were already not enough a hindrance to their accomplishing their studies, we would only benefit the wealthy ones. Only those who could then afford to study or would be certain that they would be able to pay off their loan because they will find an enviable post thanks to their (parents’) acquaintances and background would eventually be students. Incidentally, their becoming students not out of personal choice but because in that way they will have better jobs will do little to help them “make a bit more of their time there”, as Mr Smith wishfully thinks.All in all, higher education may not be a right but free access to it by anyone who deserves it is definitely one. And so is the right not to access it. Likewise, it is just that non-graduates enjoy the services provided to them by graduate doctors, for example, also having the freedom not to attend university. Therefore, either category of people supports each other’s right to be admitted into university or not.




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THINKING OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT?


DON’T GET CARRIED AWAY! by Peter Ladefoged

Your regional council has recently launched a campaign to encourage people to make greater use of local buses and trains and to leave their cars at home. There is, however, in your view, clear evidence that the general standards and reliability of the services are poor and that there is an increasing incidence of muggings and attacks on public transport. Write an article for a local newspaper, giving examples of your own experiences of local public transport and your views on the aims of the campaign.

Our regional council have been bombarding us with “advice” not to use our cars, especially for commuting purposes. What is their alternative? Local buses and trains. But how reliable a suggestion is this?On the one hand, all buses and trains are inadequate in number, hence barely frequent. The other day I came across a timetable dated 31st May 1996. Even though the number of passengers has doubled since then, the timetable is still the same. Apart from this, existing buses and trains are in a dilapidated state. I suspect even fewer are circulating because they need to be serviced all too often. Moreover, conditions inside are regrettable beyond description: broken handles, torn canvas on seats, filthy window panes and leaking roofs. Only two days ago I was on board the train from Panshurst to Wolverhampton when I felt the rain drizzling over my head.Yet, I believe that as a patient people, immune to the austerity measures by the government, we could put up with all this. I’m afraid I cannot write the same about security, however. Not to put too fine a point on it, our local means of transport are a mugger’s paradise. Pick-pockets are thriving on packed buses or trains, revelling in the absence of the police. I, personally, have fallen victim of larceny while travelling twice this month. People have ceased reporting incidents of theft or even sexual harassment to the authorities, as they have grown tired of the latter’s inefficiency.Should our ivory tower lords discuss with any of us, regular commuters, they will learn a lot more. I feel that the recent campaign has been just another case of mismanaging taxpayers’ money on asinine projects. Is it aimed at the naïve hoi polloi so that the few clever ones can get rid of them and benefit by using their expensive 4x4s in congestion-free streets, I wonder. If they candidly care about pollution and heavy traffic, they should upgrade local public transport in terms of security and reliability first. Additionally, they could encourage people to travel in groups of 2-4 in their cars rather than as single persons. Another good idea would be to plan alternative routes along crowded lanes. But trying to persuade us to use public transport as it is seems to be totally outrageous!


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LOCALISM - The patron saint of Berrhoea and a local legend


Saint Anthony of Berrhoea used to be a priest-monk who lived in a hermitage nearby the Haliacmon River. For the sake of true history, it has to be mentioned that he is reported to have lived in the Middle Ages, in the years preceding the 11th century AD. Nevertheless, the discovery of his relics is related to an intriguing account still reminisced about by older local residents.To begin/start with, a group of hunters is said to have entered a cave on the north bank of the Haliacmon, where the saint man expired, having seen a hand beckoning them in. This had obviously been a miracle, for the hunters got into the cavern only to find Saint Anthony’s fragrant bones. The story goes that the bishop of Berrhoea was invited on the occasion and the dead man’s sainthood (was) recognised. However, people from several districts of Emathia disputed over Saint Anthony’s birthplace. And this is how they decided to settle the whole matter: They put Saint Anthony’s relics on an ox-cart; the holy man ought to lie where the oxen, overwhelmed by tiredness, would stop. And this is the most astonishing part of the story. To put it clearly, the names of certain villages in our region are attributed to the route of that ox-cart. More specifically, the ox-cart in question is rumoured to have by-passed Xechasmene (forgotten village), crossed twice Stavros (cross), got through Diabatos (trodden path), traced a circular line around Couloura (bread roll), and finally made its way through the middle of Mese (middle) to reach a wild mulberry tree in the centre of Berrhoea, next to/beside which St Anthony’s Cathedral was to be built later on. At that point, the oxen wouldn’t budge an inch. After all, the cart was damaged because it had come to a halt having collided with the aforementioned mulberry…
ATTRACTIONS OF BERRHOEA AND ITS ENVIRONS
a) St Paul’s Tribune A contemporary monument commemorating St Paul’s visits to Berrhoea between 50 and 60 A.D. It stands at the place where the Apostle of Nations is believed to have preached Christianity. In effect, it consists of three majestic mosaics and a smaller one.
b) The Archaeological Museum Exhibits on display include Paleolithic findings as well as funeral gifts and votive stelae dating from the classical times down to the Roman Conquest era.
c) More than 40 mediaeval and post-mediaeval (Byzantine) churches Among those noticeable are the 12 Apostles’ Cathedral with its exquisite wood cut icon screen, the church dedicated to the Resurrection of Jesus Christ on the corner of Metropoleos and Contogeorgake Streets, decorated with impressive wall-paintings, and the Old Metropolitan Cathedral.
d) Elea Square – or the balcony of Berrhoea The perfect place for a breath of fresh air, a walk, or for children to play about/around. In any case, since the square overlooks the plain of Emathia, one can relish a magnificent view of the landscape, which resembles sea at night.
e) The 2 pedestrian precincts The former could roughly be characterised as a tiny commercial centre, as numerous shops selling ready-made clothes, footwear, and the like are situated there. The latter is crowded with traditional mansions intermingling with coffee bars, pubs, cafés, and tavernas.
f) The Archaeological Site in Vergina The world-known ancient palace and the Royal Tombs of King Philip II (360-336 B.C.), his wife Cleopatra, and a young Prince are all open to the public. Major exhibits include Philip’s gold crown stylishly fashioned into a pair of oak twigs, the renowned shrine bearing a sixteen-ray sun, the emblem of the Macedonian dynasty, unique fresco(e)s, and several tomb inscriptions in Greek, proving that Greece has been right to insist on the unquestionably Hellenic identity of Macedonia and its native population.
g) Bermion Ski Centre Perched on top of Bermion Mountain, it may well be the ideal destination of a daily excursion. Accommodation, climbing and/or hiking facilities are available, especially during winter months.
Task 1: Your school will be host to a group of students from a Spanish Secondary School during the upcoming Christmas holidays. You are the secretary of the pupils’ council and you have been assigned by your English teacher the task of writing a letter of invitation to the headmaster/headmistress of the Spanish school, describing some of the local attractions your Spanish counterparts could see. You are required to refer to at least 4 attractions.
Task 2: Write a letter to your pen friend from New Zealand inviting him/her to spend his/her Christmas vacation at your place. Mention at least 4 attractions in your area which might be of some interest to him/her.


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Shooting a film

DRAMATIS PERSONAE:
1) A film director (F.D.)
2) A camera operator (C.O.)
3) A parent (P)
4) A child (C)
5) A doctor (D)
6) Four extras


SETTING:
In a colourful children’s room, a young kid is playing with his/her toys; perhaps, a train could be the major attraction. The parent is reading a newspaper.
PART I
C: Choo-choo! Choo-choo! Choo-choo! Oh! Wah! Wah! (Crying)
P: What’s wrong, sweetheart?
C: I have a horrible bellyache, wah!
P: Oh, dear! Poor child, let me take you to bed.
C: Wah, ah, ah!
P: Don’t cry, darling. (Talking to himself/herself:) I must call for a doctor. (Dialling) Hallo, is that you, doc? Yes, please, I’m Mr(s) Hopkins… my little boy/girl is aching all over. Can you come right now? Phew, thank goodness!
C: Wah, ah! (Still crying) I’m going to die!
P: Don’t be silly, (name), the doctor will be here in a minute… (Sound of a doorbell)
D: (Entering) Hello!
P: Hello, eventually, doc!
D: What’s the matter, Mr(s) Hopkins?
P: My child has had an awful pain…
D: Ok, let me see… Well, I’m afraid I badly need to perform an emergency operation on (name). There’s no time for him/her to be taken to hospital, so I must do it here.
P: Oh, do quickly, doc, save my child!
D: (Taking out a syringe) Don’t worry, it won’t hurt.
D: (After a while) I’m sorry, sir/madam; the operation has been successful but the patient died.
P: Aaah!
(ENTER the extras to carry the corpse)

PART II
F.D: Cut! That’s unacceptable.All actors: Why?.. Hey, what do you mean?
F.D: You’ve been all playing too quickly. You must play more slowly. Can you understand? MORE SLOWLY. Back to your places! So, is everyone ready?All actors and actresses: Yes, yes.
F.D: All right, let’s start then!
C.O: Excuse me, sir/madam; I’ve got something to tell you.
F.D: Not now, just shoot and take care not to miss anything.
C.O: But how...?
F.D: Oh, stop hassling me and do your work properly.(Play PART I again but extremely slowly)PART III
F.D: Cut! That’s unacceptable.All actors: Why?.. Hey, what do you mean?
F.D: You’ve been all playing too slowly. You must play more quickly. Can you understand? MORE QUICKLY. Back to your places! So, is everyone ready?All actors and actresses: Yes, yes.
F.D: All right, let’s start then!
C.O: Excuse me, sir/madam; I’ve got something to tell you.
F.D: Not now, just shoot and take care not to miss anything.
C.O: But how..?
F.D: Oh, stop hassling me and do your work properly.
(Play PART I again but extremely quickly)
(Play PART II again)
(Play PART I at a normal pace)
PART IV
F.D: That’s it! Congratulations!All actors: Hooray! Thanks, boss! We’re top!
C.O: Excuse me, sir/madam; I’ve got something to tell you.
F.D: Ok, you can talk now.
C.O: I’ve forgotten to put a film in the camera!
F.D. and everybody else (shouting angrily): What?! We’ll beat you!
The End


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The Parthenon marbles


The fruits of a theft
Thomas Elgin, Britain’s ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, managed to remove most extant statues of the Parthenon, a Caryatid, a few pieces from Erectheion, and several precious works of ancient art. These objects (253 in number) were stolen between 1799 and 1802 and sent to England. Nowadays, they are in a room of the British Museum. Various great men, like Lord Byron, have often disapproved of that theft and/or demanded that the British government should return to Greece everything Elgin and his co-operators stole, but to no effect so far.

Note: The above information was collected by George Selimes and Catherine Tzidemopoulou, pupils of C2 class, Ano Come Secondary School, in April 2000.



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ITHACA (translated by R. Daelvan)


When you start on your journey to Ithaca,
Then pray that the road is long,
full of adventure, full of knowledge.
Do not fear the Laestrygonians
and the Cyclopes and the angry Poseidon.
You will never meet such as these on your path,
if your thoughts remain lofty, if a fine
emotion touches your body and your spirit.
You will never meet the Laestrygonians,
the Cyclopes and the fierce Poseidon,
if you do not carry them within your soul,
if your soul does not raise them up before you.
Then pray that the road is long.
That the summer mornings are many,
that you will enter ports seen for the first time
with such pleasure, with such joy!
Stop at Phoenician markets,
and purchase fine merchandise,
mother-of-pearl and corals, amber and ebony,
and pleasurable perfumes of all kinds,
buy as many pleasurable perfumes as you can;
visit hosts of Egyptian cities,
to learn and learn from those who have knowledge.
Always keep Ithaca fixed in your mind.
To arrive there is your ultimate goal.
But do not hurry the voyage at all.
It is better to let it last for long years;
and even to anchor at the isle when you are old,
rich with all that you have gained on the way,
not expecting that Ithaca will offer you riches.
Ithaca has given you the beautiful voyage.
Without her you would never have taken the road.
But she has nothing to give you.
And if you find her poor, Ithaca has not defrauded you.
With the great wisdom you have gained,
with so much experience,
you must surely have understood by then what Ithacas mean.
by C.P. Kavafy


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Cloning and DNA


Serving life or a disaster?
A. Indeed, researchers who have been toiling in their laboratories in order to solve impenetrable mysteries related to life, its structure and evolution, molecular biology and genetics have been making truly assiduous and admirable efforts. Facts known so far are really impressive even though they represent only ten per cent of what is to be learnt. Nevertheless, mankind, endowed with the spark of knowledge, turning into account its achievements to date, looks forward to the future aiming at means of prognosis, diagnosis and cure of various diseases becoming more effective. Since DNA’s decoding has been received with great élan, one wonders whether this success will be utilised to the benefit of humanity, in which case we can be optimistic, or if it is to be treated recklessly, so harming people by causing a flood of unprecedented problems. In any case, Plato’s aphorism that “every piece of knowledge divorced from virtue proves to be cunning rather than wisdom” calls for precautionary measures to be taken so that any tragic outcome is staved off.B. More specifically, “translating” human genes may bring about psychological and social troubles while simultaneously being salutary for the human race. To illustrate this, it is now possible to diagnose a (predisposition for a) disease, like anaemia, cancer, diabetes, etc, 10-40 years before any symptoms actually appear. In many a case, such an early diagnosis could be beneficial, as it might lead individuals to disease-fighting behavioural patterns by complying with special dieting or other instructions, or regularly undergoing check-ups. What will happen, though, when an ailment for which no therapy or prevention is available is early diagnosed? A similar prospect of health failure can be particularly oppressive.C. However, this is not the only dilemma emerging. Insurance companies and employers already conduct some prognostic tests. Insurers are interested to know in advance the life expectancy of their clients so as to decide on their premiums. Otherwise, they have to demand the same amount from everyone, which makes insurance rates unfair or barely affordable for many. Likewise, certain employers require that candidates for appointment be subjected to a genetic test with a view to locating any predisposition for a job-related disease (e.g. over-sensitivity to toxic substances) or for some irrelevant problem (e.g. premature death due to a cardio-vascular disease). Perhaps in the former case both employers and employees could benefit from knowing about a job-related illness but in the latter case, employees should be legally protected against such examination.D. Moreover, cloning human embryos will entail controversial potential. Embryo owners will be able to stipulate the number, gender, quality and the whole prefabricated structure of human clones, providing them with features the former have selected by intervening in their genetic codes. “Prudent” parents could keep frozen replicas of their offspring so that, if the latter die, they could make up for the loss. Greedy couples will discover the possibility of profit and, if their old enough child has Jordan’s records, Crawford’s beauty or Hawking’s intelligence, they will offer to sell their child’s cloned embryos at exuberant prices. Unscrupulous businessmen could start trafficking cloned embryos and young children would see their faces reflected on the faces of younger or older people or their peers, without knowing what those hosts are because, although they will be siblings, biologically speaking, in actuality they could be deemed to be their cousins, nephews, grandchildren or total strangers. This could pave the way for mass reproduction of standardised humans. The kind of such a standardisation will depend on the intentions of an “élite”.E. This is why Bio-ethics is of utmost importance. If it is agreed that man has the right to be honoured and respected as a unique and invaluable being on earth, then medical research cannot be uncontrolled. It is imperative that rules of ethics and medical etiquette should be enacted, especially as regards experiments on humans and discoveries of Genetics. Fortunately, the European Union is already processing such a set of rules. Before benevolent biologists and geneticists begin to feel remorse because their conscientious endeavours will have been put to death’s or alienation’s service, is it not more preferable for action to be taken beforehand?